Gilberto Aceves studied at the National School of Painting, Sculpture and Engraving "La Esmeralda" in 1950, under the direction of Enrique Assad, Ignacio Aguirre and Carlos Orozco Romero. In 1952 he worked as an assistant with the teacher David Alfaro Siqueiros in the murals of the Rectory at the Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Aceves continued his studies at "La Esmeralda" in 1953 with the teacher Isidro Ocampo in the engraving area and was later expelled from the school.
His mural Canto triste por Biafra, part of the collection of the Museum of Modern Art is considered a key piece for the development of La Ruptura. His mural works also include Singing to the race and Dances of life and death. In 1989 he received an honorable mention at the Cannes Sur Mer Biennale in France, as well as the National University Award from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).
Aceves Navarro has been a member of the Academy of Arts since 2003, the same year that he won the National Prize for Science and Arts in the area of Fine Arts, in addition to having held a retrospective exhibition in 2009 that completely occupied the Palace of Fine Arts (Bellas Artes) in Mexico City.